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Protecting Your Pet From Poison

Written by: Chris Alderson
Member of Epil-K9

 

 

 

 

Overview

 

Dogs of all ages, especially puppies, explore with their mouths. This behavior often lands them in trouble. Always be prepared. Your animal may become poisoned in spite of your best efforts to prevent it. We need to look at our homes through the eyes of our pets, seeking out "toys" and "entertainment" that might be dangerous to our companion animals. Many common household items can become lethal to curious pets. (The lists below may not be complete but will give you a good overview of the kinds of things in your pet's environment that are poisonous.) Exposure to toxins can be by inhaling, ingesting (consuming or licking), skin contact (including through pads of feet) or from long-term exposures. Poisons that are dangerous if ingested, may not be toxic from other exposures such as skin contact.

The level of toxicity of poisons varies greatly, as will the reactions or symptoms that will manifest themselves. Reactions can vary from mild (including nausea or skin irritation) to severe (including seizures, cardiac failure, liver or kidney failure, coma or death).

Some epileptic dogs may show a greater sensitivity to toxins that other dogs would. Toxins may trigger seizures in some epi dogs and may also lower seizure threshold. Be aware of everything in your dogs environment (in your home, yard, and areas where you walk or train with your dog).

 

Be Prepared With Emergency Numbers
Keep the phone number of the local Poison Control Center where you keep your vet and Emergency Clinic numbers. Also keep the number for the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) (below).

National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC)  [a not for profit service of the University of Illinois]:
NAPCC has three telephone numbers for easy access. Help is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

(900) 680-0000 costs $20 for the first five minutes and $2.95 for each additional minute billed to your telephone. (800) 548-2423 and (888) ANI-HELP [(888) 426-4435]. These are credit- card-only numbers for $30 per case. (Only Master Card, Visa, American Express, and Discover cards are accepted. )

NAPCC veterinarians and veterinary toxicologists have up-to-the-minute information on toxicity levels, antidotes, treatments, and prognosis based on more that 250,000 cases involving pesticides, drugs, plants, metals, and other exposures in pets, livestock and wildlife. These specialists provide advice to animal owners and confer with veterinarians about poison exposures.

Visit the NAPCC website at:  http://www.napcc.aspca.org/

Have this information ready when you call NAPCC:

 

What to do if you suspect your animal has been poisoned:
If you suspect that your pet has been exposed to a poison, it is important not to panic. While rapid response is important, panicking generally interferes with the process of helping your animal. Take 60 seconds to safely collect and have at hand the material ingested. Detailed information may be of great benefit to the poison control center and your vet as they determine exactly what poison or poisons are involved. Be as specific as possible (eg. not just "pesticide" but what kind and active ingredients, etc.), and a general idea of how much was ingested. If you need to take your animal to your veterinarian or emergency clinic, be sure to take with you the container from which the poison was consumed. Also bring any material your pet may have vomited or chewed, collected in a zip-lock bag.

If your animal is seizuring, losing consciousness, unconscious or having difficulty breathing, you should contact your veterinarian immediately. Most veterinarians are familiar with the consulting services of the NAPCC. Depending on your particular situation, your local veterinarian may want to contact the Center personally while you bring your pet to the animal hospital.

You may be advised to take some steps to purge or neutralize the poison. The following are general guidelines and should be initiated only upon the advice of a veterinarian or the poison control center.

Purge the poison - induce vomiting:  If your pet has ingested poisons that ARE NOT CAUSTIC, getting him to vomit may eliminate some of the danger. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING IF YOUR PET HAS INGESTED A CAUSTIC SUBSTANCE. ( eg: drain cleaner)

To make your pet vomit, give him household hydrogen peroxide (a 3 percent solution) -- about one tablespoon for every ten pounds of pet. Draw the liquid into a syringe or turkey baster, tip your pet's head back and squirt it toward the back of his tongue. Your pet should vomit within five minutes. If he doesn't, wait 10 minutes and try again. If he still does not vomit, DO NOT give a third dose (giving too much hydrogen peroxide can be dangerous). DO NOT use syrup of ipecac ­ while safe for, humans it can be toxic to pets.

Neutralize the poison:  If your pet has devoured a caustic substance such as drain cleaner or kerosene, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING (the poison will burn both going down and coming up). Instead give your pet something to neutralize the harsh chemicals.

If he got into something alkaline -- like drain cleaner -- give him about three teaspoons of vinegar or lemon juice diluted in an equal amount of water. Again, draw the liquid into a syringe or baster and squirt it toward the back of his mouth. This will help neutralize the harmful effects of the chemical in his belly, cooling the burn.

If he got into an acid -- by chewing a battery, for example, or drinking bleach -- Milk of Magnesia will negate the acid. Give one teaspoon for every five pounds of pet. Absorb it with charcoal. Giving your pet activated charcoal, either in tablet form or as a powder mixed with water, will quickly absorb toxins from the stomach before they have a chance to be absorbed into the system. Even after giving charcoal, however, the original poison is still in the gut, so you'll want to see your vet right away.

Dilute the poison: If your pet is alert, giving him milk will help dilute poison while at the same time coating his stomach and mouth, helping soothe the irritation. If he seems woozy, however, don't give him anything to eat or drink, because it could cause suffocation.

Clean the coat: Not all poisons must be swallowed to cause harm. Sometimes just coming into contact with them can cause damage or even death. Even products that are generally considered safe -- like flea dips -- can be harmful if the directions aren't followed exactly. If your pet has gotten into something he shouldn't have, immediately give him a bath to rinse off a topical toxin. Rinse the affected area with water for at least ten minutes, even before you take him to the vet. After the initial flushing, you can wash the  coat with shampoo or dishwashing liquid to remove as much of the poison as possible. Even washing with plain water can help. Rinsing even 12 hours later will help decrease the concentration.

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Emergency Pet First Aid Kit items to keep on hand


You may benefit by keeping a pet safety kit and other items on hand for emergencies. Such a kit should contain:

More information on First Aid Kits for Dogs can be found here http://www.canine-epilepsy.com/petfirstaid.html

 

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10 Tips for Preventing Poisoning:
(by Dr. Jill A. Richardson, DVM of the NAPCC)

 

1.   Be aware of the plants you have in your house and in your pet's yard. The ingestion of azalea, oleander, mistletoe, sago palm, Easter lily, or yew plant material, by an animal, could be fatal. (see lists of toxic plants and website references below).

2.  When cleaning your house, never allow your pet access to the area where cleaning agents are used or stored. Cleaning agents have a variety of properties. Some may only cause a mild stomach upset, while others could cause severe burns of the tongue, mouth, and stomach.

3. When using rat or mouse baits, ant or roach traps, or snail and slug baits, place the products in areas that are inaccessible to your animals. Most baits contain sweet smelling inert ingredients, such as jelly, peanut butter, and sugars, which can be very attractive to your pet.

4. Never give your animal any medications unless under the direction of your veterinarian. Many medications that are used safely in humans can be deadly when used inappropriately. One extra strength acetaminophen tablet (500mg) can kill a seven-pound cat.

5. Keep all prescription and over the counter drugs out of your pets' reach, preferably in closed cabinets. Pain killers, cold medicines, anti-cancer drugs, antidepressants, vitamins, and diet pills are common examples of human medication that could be potentially lethal even in small dosages. One regular strength ibuprofen (200mg) could cause stomach ulcers in a ten-pound dog.

6. Never leave chocolates unattended. Approximately one-half ounce or less of baking chocolate per pound body weight can cause problems. Even small amounts can cause pancreatic problems.

7. Many common household items have been shown to be lethal in certain species. Miscellaneous items that are highly toxic even in low quantities include pennies (high concentration of zinc), mothballs (contain naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene. one or two balls can be life threatening in most species), potpourri oils, fabric softener sheets, automatic dish washing detergents (contain cationic detergents which could cause corrosive lesions), batteries (contain acids or alkali which can also cause corrosive lesions), homemade play dough (contains high quantity of salt), winter heat source agents like hand or foot warmers (contain high levels of iron), cigarettes, coffee grounds, and alcoholic drinks.

8. All automotive products such as oil, gasoline, and antifreeze, should be stored in areas away from pet access. As little as one teaspoon of antifreeze (ethylene glycol) can be deadly in a seven-pound cat and less than one tablespoon could be lethal to a 20-pound dog.

9. Before buying or using flea products on your pet or in your household, contact your veterinarian to discuss what types of flea products are recommended for your pet. Read ALL information before using a product on your animals or in your home. Always follow label instructions. When a product is labeled "for use in dogs only" this means that the product should NEVER be applied to cats. Also, when using a fogger or a house spray, make sure to remove all pets from the area for the time period specified on the container. If you are uncertain about the usage of any product, contact the manufacturer or your veterinarian to clarify the directions BEFORE use of the product.

10. When treating your lawn or garden with fertilizers, herbicides, or insecticides, always keep your animals away from the area until the area dries completely. Discuss usage of products with the manufacturer of the products to be used. Always store such products in an area that will ensure no possible pet exposure.

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Plants

There are many plants which are considered toxic to pets. Fortunately, there are relatively few plants that, when ingested, cause acute life-threatening illnesses. Not all of the plants listed here are toxic to all animals, but this may be used as a very general guideline. Some may be toxic to one type of animal, and not to another. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms which may include but not limited to: skin rash, swelling of the mouth and throat, discoloration of the gums or there may be NO visible symptoms. It is safest to call your vet or local poison control center ANYTIME a plant is ingested.

This listing may not include all poisonous plants; if you are unsure if a plant is considered toxic, call your local poison control center to find out BEFORE you have an emergency with it.

Many, but certainly not all, toxic plants are not very palatable. Therefore, if given the choice, animals will avoid ingesting them even though they may be prevalent in the environment of the animal. Many toxic plants rarely cause problems because most dogs don't chew them -- the exceptions being, of course, young puppies who are inclined to explore the world with their mouths, teething dogs who may chew on everything, and older dogs that are simply fond of chewing.

Toxic plants may contain wide variety of poisons. Reactions to poisonous plants vary from severe to mild. Most cause vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps. Some cause tremors, seizures, heart and respiratory and/or kidney problems, which are difficult for an owner to interpret. Other symptoms may include swelling of the mouth, lips and tongue that can make breathing difficult or cause asphyxiation. More mild symptoms may include itching and rash.

Some of the accompanying websites provide visual references to help identify plants in your dog's environment that you may not be familiar with. It is important to know the names of the plants in your home, yard and garden and be familiar with the potential toxicity of these plants.

The U of PA site includes a comprehensive index of plants by common and latin name with photographic references at:
http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/poison/index.html

This Texas A & M webpage contains a reference chart of poisonous plants and
plant parts and related symptoms if ingested:
http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/publications/poison/poison.html

 

Poisonous Plants

A

Acocanthera -- Fruit and Flowers, Airplane Plant, Aloe, Amanita Mushroom, Amaryllis ( bulbs), Amsinckia/Tarweed (Foliage, Seeds), Anemone, Angel Trumpet Tree (Flowers and Leaves), Apple Seeds, Apricot Pits & Seed Kernal, Asparagus Fern,
Atropa Belladona, Avocado Leaves, Azalea

B

Balsam Pear (Seeds, Outer Rind of Fruit), Baneberry Beach Pea, Betel Nut Palm, Belladonna, Bird Of Paradise ( Seeds)
Bittersweet (Berries), Black-Eyed Susan, Bladder Pod, Bloodroot, Bluebonnet, Bottlebrush (Flowers), Bouncing Bet, Boxwood Bleeding Heart, Boxwood Tree, Bracken or Brake Fern, Buckthorn ( Fruit, Bark), Buttercup ( Sap, Bulbs).

C

Caladium, Calla Lily, Cardinal Flower, Carolina Jessamine, Cassava (Roots), Castor Bean (Leaves, Bean) Chalice vine / Trumpet vine, Cherry Tree (Everything Except Fruit) Cherry Laurel, Chinaberry Tree ( Berries) Christmas Berry ( Berries) Christmas Cactus ( Sap) Christmas Candle, Christmas Rose, Christmas Tree (Needles, Tree Water), Chrysanthemum, Clover, (Alsike & Other Clovers ),Cocklebur, Common Privet, Columbine, Coral plant, Corn Cockle, Creeping Charlie, Creeping Fig, Crocus Bulbs (Autumn), Crown of Thorns, Crocus (Bulbs), Croton, Curly Dock, Cyclamen .

D

Daffodil, Daphne ( Berries), Datura / Jimsonweed, Deadly Amanita, Deadly Nightshade, Death Camas, Death Cap Mushroom,
Deiffenbachia / Dumb Cane, Delphinium, Destroying Angel / Death Cap, Diffenbachia, Dogbane, Dogwood ( Fruit), Dragon Tree, Dutchman's Breeches, Dumb Cane.

E

Eggplant (Foliage), Elderberry (Foliage),Elephant's Ear / Taro (Foliage), English Holly (Berries), English Ivy, Equisetum, Euphorbia / Spurges, False Hellebore, False Henbane, Fiddleneck / Senecio, Fireweed, Fly Agaric / Amanita, Four O'Clock, Foxglove.

G

Gelsemium,Ghostweed / Snow On The Mountain, Golden chain / Laburnum,

H

Holly Berries (English and American), Horsechestnut Horsetail Reed / Equisetum, Hyacinth (Bulbs), Hydrangea (Flower Buds)

I

Iris ( Bulb), Ivy.

J

Jack-In-The-Pulpit /Indian Turnip, Japanese Yew, Jasmine, Jasmine Star, Jatropha (Seeds, Sap), Java bean (Uncooked Bean), Jerusalem Cherry (Berries), Jessamine (Berries), Jimsonweed, Johnson Grass, Juniper (Needles, Stems and Berries).

K

Kentucky Coffee Tree

L

Laburnum, Lamb's Quarters, Lambkill / Sheep Laurel, Lantana, Larkpsur, Laurel, Lily of the Valley (All parts of the plant, as well as vase water), Lobelia, Locoweed, Lords and Ladies / Cuckoopint, Lupine.

M

Machineel, Mayapple (All parts, except fruit), Mescal Bean, Milk Vetch, Milkweeds (Foliage), Mistletoe Berries, Moccasin Flower, Mock orange (Fruit) Monkshood, Morning glory, Mother-In-Law's Tongue, Mountain Laurel, Mushrooms (many wild forms)

N

Narcissus (Bulbs), Narcissus Jonquilla, Natal Cherry, Needlepoint Ivy, Nicotine Bush, Nightshades.

O

Oak (Acorns, Leaves), Ohio Buckeye, Oleander (very poisonous), Peach (Pit), Pear Seeds,

P

Pennyroyal (Foliage & Flowers), Peony, Periwinkle, Philodendron, Pigweed, Pikeweed, Pine Needles, Poinsetta, Poison Hemlock,
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac, Pokeweed, Pokewood / Poke cherry ( Roots, Fruit), Poppy, Pot Mum, Potato plant (New shoots and Eyes), Privet Shrub.

R

Rattlebox, Rhododendron, Rhubarb Plants, Ripple Ivy, Rosary Peas (Pods, Seeds, Flowers), Russian Thistle.

S

Sago Palm, Salmonberry, Scarlet Pimpernel, Senecio / Fiddleneck, Skunk Cabbage, Snapdragon, Snowdrop, Spanish Bayonet, Spider Mum, Spider Plant, Sprangeri Fern, Star Of Bethlehem, Sudan Grass, Sundew.

T

Tansy ( Foliage, Flowers), Tarweed, Thornapple, Tiger Lily, Toad Flax (Foliage) Tobacco Plants, Tobacco Leaves, Tomato Plant (All parts, except for fruit), Touch-Me-Not, Toyon Berry (Berries), Trillium ( Foliage) Trumpet Vine, Tulips.

U

Umbrella Plant

V
Venus Flytrap, Verbena, Virginia Creeper (Sap).

W

Water Hemlock, Weeping Fig, Wild Parsnip (Roots, Foliage),Wisteria.

Y

Yellow Jessamine, Yellow Star Thistle, Yew (American, English and Japanese)

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Household Cleaners, Chemicals and Common Articles
(with information from the NAPCC website)

Many pet poisonings are the result of exposures to common household cleaning agents. For pets, both epileptic and non-epileptic, exposure to many of these products is extremely dangerous.

Some cleaners can destroy tissue on contact by acid or alkaline burns, by dissolving through tissue membranes, by absorbing through to the animal's bloodstream and causing generalized illness and a variety of other mechanisms. Pine oils and electric dishwashing detergents particularly tend to be quite toxic although the range of chemicals included in cleaning products can cause signs varying widely from mild local irritation (many detergent soaps) to deep penetrating tissue damage (alkaline products) to severe systemic disease (pine oils and others). The best remedy is prevention.

Keep all cleaners tightly closed when not in use to prevent accidental spills and ingestion. Also, be sure to keep pets out of newly cleaned areas to avoid paw injuries from walking in the newly applied cleaning solution and mouth burns from the animal then grooming itself. Also be aware of the possible dangers of toilet bowl cleaners from dogs and cats who consider the toilet just another water bowl! In case of accidental exposure to cleaning products, it is generally recommended to flush the skin (or mouth) with
plain water to wash away remaining chemicals, then call in to your veterinary clinic for further instructions.

 

Acids
Air Fresheners (solids, aerosol sprays, beads, "plug-ins", etc.)
Ammonia
Antiseptics
Bleach
Bubble Bath
Batteries
Carpet Fresheners
Charcoal Starting Fluid
Colognes/Perfumes
Cosmetics
Dish Detergents
Drain Cleaners
Epoxy Glues
Furniture Polish
Gun Cleaners
Hair Dyes
Iodine
Insecticides
Insulation
Jewelry Cleaner
Kerosene
Lamp Oil
Laundry Detergents
Lead Curtain Weights
Lye
Metal Cleaners
Moth Balls
Nail Polish/Remover
Oven Cleaner
Paint
Paint Thinners and Removers
Permanent Wave Solution
Pennies
Peroxides
Perfumes
Petroleum Products
Pine Oil and Pine Cleaning Products
Plant Food
Potpourri
Rodent Poison
Shampoo
Shaving Lotion
Toilet Bowl Cleaner
Turpentine
Varnishes and Stains
Window Cleaner
Wood Preservative

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Chocolate, Onions and Other Foods Poisonous to Dogs

 

Alcoholic beverages
Avocados (leaves, seeds, skin, stem)
Chocolate (theobromine) (baker's, semi-sweet, milk, dark) (see more on
Chocolate Toxicity below)
Coffee
Cola drinks
Hops (used in home beer brewing)
Macadamia nuts
Moldy foods
Onions, onion powder
Potato leaves and stems, or sprouted potatoes (green parts)
Rhubarb leaves
Salt
Tea
Tomato leaves and stems (green parts)
Walnuts
Yeast Dough

Chocolate Toxicity in Dogs:


Chart of toxicity by chocolate type and dog weight:
http://www.frii.com/~phouka/dogs/dog_choc.html
http://mirabos.bham.ac.uk/ukclub/toxicchoc.htm

Comprehensive look at types of chocolate and toxicity by weight:
http://users.snip.net/%7Ecarm74/choc.htm

Theobromine is what makes chocolate toxic:
http://vetmedicine.about.com/health/vetmedicine/library/weekly/aa020900a.htm

 

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Automobile Products
(with information from the NAPCC website)

Like household cleaning productions, car-cleaning compounds can cause stomach upset and vomiting. Some car-cleaning agents are stronger than those used indoors. Antifreeze (ethylene glycol) and windshield washer fluid can be harmful to your pet. Less than one tablespoon can be deadly to a 10-pound dog. Safer antifreeze products(propylene glycol) are now available and should be used.

Antifreeze

Poisoning by antifreeze, or ethylene glycol, is one of the most common small animal toxicities. This poison has a sweet taste and spilled or leaked antifreeze is lapped up by many dogs and cats in quantities sufficient to cause severe sickness and even death.

It takes only about 1/2 teaspoon per pound for a dog to get a toxic dose of ethylene glyco. Although the poison affects both the animal's neurological and kidney function, the most severe damage usually involves the kidneys. Clinical signs in affected animals include depression, incoordination, vomiting, and seizures. The best way to combat antifreeze poisoning is by preventing the animal from having the opportunity to drink the poison. Keep all containers tightly closed when not in use and clean up spills immediately.

There is currently a new product on the market (one trade name is "Sierra") which claims to be safer than other brands of antifreeze. This product contains propylene glycol as its active ingredient. If ingested, it can still cause the nervous system injury resulting in incoordination and possibly seizures but does not cause the more frequently fatal kidney damage. It is clear using such a product would pose less of a health hazard. The best advice remains, however, to always use any potentially toxic product carefully to prevent accidental poisoning in the first place.

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Yard and Garden Products

 

Fertilizers
Herbicides
Insecticides (organophosphates, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds, pyrethrins, arsenic in various forms: sprays, powders, traps, baits)

Pets may be exposed to insecticides that are used in the home, yard, garden, or through the flea collars, dips and powders that are sometimes used to help rid them of fleas. Epileptic dogs or dogs with other seizure disorders may be more sensitive to these chemicals.

Exposures to organophospates and carbamate products (by eating a poison or, less frequently, absorbing the substance through the skin in a dip product) may results in these signs: excess saliva production, lacrimation or tearing of the eyes, excessive urination, diarrhea, muscle twitching, weakness, difficult breathing and collapse. It is critical than an animal potentially exposed to these insecticides be evaluated by veterinary personnel as quickly as possible in order to provide treatment if necessary before signs become severe, at which point treatment is often ineffective.

Other types of insecticides have different poisonous properties and which may require different treatments for accidental exposure If your pet is exposed, it is important to get the container with the label including the insecticide's active ingredients and provide this information to your vet to help him determine the type of toxicity and any possible treatments as quickly as possible, preferably before the pet is very sick. Many of these products are extremely toxic and any delay in evaluation of the cat or dog can be life-threatening.

Many yard and garden chemicals and products are extremely toxic. Even when used according to package directions, these products can be dangerous to our pets. For epileptic dogs, these products may present an even greater threat by lowering seizure thresholds, or triggering seizures. Exposure to insecticides, herbicides, fertilizers and other yard and garden chemicals can be through inhaling, eating/licking, or through skin/eye/foot pad contact. Pets may also ingest these toxins by grooming themselves after they have been exposed to these products.

If you choose to use these products, do not use them in the presence of your pets. For your own and your animal's safety, read and follow label directions carefully. Your pets should be kept off of a lawn treated with an insecticide or a weed killer at least until the lawn is completely dry. Always store such products in areas that are inaccessible to your pets.

Even if you choose not to use these products in your own environment, be aware that your neighbors, local parks and trails and facilities where you train your dog may be using them. Lawn services are required to post temporary signs where they have treated
with herbicides, fertilizers and insecticides. Keep your pets away from these areas.

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Rodenticides
(from the NPCAA website)

 

Bromethalin
Cholecalciferol
Diphacinone
Fumarin
Strychnine
Warfarin
Zinc Phsphide

 

Poisons intended to kill rats, mice, gophers, moles and other mammalian pests are among the most common and deadly of small animal toxins. Substances highly poisonous to the pests are just as lethal to our pets. Rodenticides are highly toxic and any such poisons designed to kill small mammals need to be carefully contained in closed metal cabinets or high on stable shelving. The poisons usually come in flimsy cardboard containers and any dog, puppy or cat can chew through the container to get at the bait.

Rodenticides are classified according to both their basic ingredient compounds and by how they act on their target. These categories include: Anti-coagulant rodenticides, cholecalciferol, strychnine, zinc phosphide, bromethalin, compound 1080 and others.

The most common rodenticide poisoning seen in veterinary practice is that of the anti-coagulant rodenticides. These poisons - with ingredient names like warfarin, fumarin, diphacinone, bromadiolone - act by interfering with the animal's ability to utilize Vitamin K. One of they key roles of Vitamin K is in the production of coagulation factors in the body which cause blood to clot when necessary. Without the necessary coagulation factors, normal minor bleeding in the body goes unchecked which, without treatment, becomes major bleeding, with blood loss anemia, hemorrhage and death resulting. With most anti-coagulant rodenticides, signs are not seen until 3-5 days after the pet has ingested the poison. Clinical signs include weakness, difficult breathing, pale mucous membranes, and bleeding from the nose.

Other types of rodenticides have different mechanisms of action with some (i.e., strychnine and bromethalin) causing neurological signs such as incoordination, seizures and others cardiac failure (i.e., cholecalciferol). If accidental ingestion of rat poison is suspected, contact your veterinary clinic immediately, even if your dog or cat is showing no obvious signs of being ill. Be sure, if possible, to bring the poison container in to the clinic in order to determine the specific toxin and provide the best treatment. Early recognition is critical as some poisons, particularly the anti-coagulant rodenticides, can be successfully treated if the poisoning iscaught early and treated appropriately.

 

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Chemicals that cause convulsions

 

From "Problems in Small Animal Neurology", by Cheryl L. Chrisman, DVM
(College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida)
Published in 1991 by Lea & Febiger

The following is on page. 190 of the book, and notes that it is courtesy of Dr. Roger Yeary, The Ohio State University Dept of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology:

 

absinthe, acetanilide, acetone cyanohydrin, acetonitrile, acetylsalicylic acid, aconite, acridium Cl, acrylonitrile, aldrin, amanita pantherona, 2-aminopyrine, amphetamine, apomorphine, arecoline, arsenic trioxide, arsine, aspidium, astropine.

barium, bromates, butacaine.

caffeine, camphor, carbon dioxide, castor beans, cedar oil, chenopodium oil, chloramine T, chlordane, chlorinated camphene, chloronaphthalene, chlorpromazine, choke cherry, cocaine, coniine, corticotrophin, cortisone, cresol, creosote, cyanide, cyclotrimethylene.


DDT, DFP, digitalis, dimenhydrinate, dimercaprol, dinitrobenzene, dinitrocresol, dinitrophenol, diphenhydramine, disulfiram, dulcamara,

endrin, ephedrine, ergot, ethylene glycol, eucalyptus oil, fluorides.

galerina venerata, gasoline, gloriosa superba, gymnothorax flavimarginatus.

helvella, heroin, hexachlorophene, hydrogen sulfide.

insulin, isoniazid.


kerosene, ketamine.

lead, lobeline.

meperidine, mercaptan.


metaldehyde, methapyrilene HCl, methyl bromide, methyl chloride, methyl formate, methyl salicylate, monochloroacetic acid,
morphine, naphthol, narcissus bulb, neostigmine, nicotine, nitrogen oxide, oenauthe crocata, oxygen (100%, 3 atm).


pantopon, parathion, phencyclidene, phenol, phosphorus, physostigmine, picrotoxin, pilocarpine, procaine, pyridamine maleate, pyrimidine, quinine.

resorcinol, rhodotypos (berries), rosemary oil.

saffron, sage (oil of), salicylates, santonin, senecio canicida, sodium fluoroacetate, squill, streptomycin, strychnine.

tanacetum vulgare, taxus baccata, tetracaine, tetrachloroethane, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, tetraodontia, thallium, thiocyanates,
thuja, trinitrotoluene, tripelennamine HCl, veratrum,

Vitamin D.

water hemlock.

zinc cyanide.

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Website Links

 

National Animal Poison Control Center:   
http://www.napcc.aspca.org/

Household Poisons (very comprehensive list of plants and household items):
http://www.kidssafe.com/p26.htm

How to Prevent Poisoning:
http://www.napcc.aspca.org/prevent.htm
http://www.petsmart.com/articles/article_6989.shtml

Home Remedies for Poisoning:
http://www.petsmart.com/pet library/home_remedies/poisoning.shtml

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Poison Guide
(categorizes by DANGEROUS, HIGHLY DANGEROUS and EMERGENCY):    
http://www.avma.org/pubhlth/poisgde.html

General Poison Information:
http://www.thepoop.com/poisonous.asp
http://mirabos.bham.ac.uk/ukclub/toxicchoc.htm
http://vetmedicine.about.com/health/vetmedicine/library/weekly/aa020900a.htm

Searchable Toxicology Database:
http://ace.ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/ghindex.html

 

Plants:

University of Illinois Toxicology Homepage (visual reference for poisonous plants):
http://www.library.uiuc.edu/vex/toxic/comlist.htm

Poisonous Plant List:
http://www.petsmart.com/articles/article_7190.shtml

The U of PA site includes a comprehensive index of plants by common and latin name with photographic references at:
http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/poison/index.html

This Texas A & M webpage contains a reference chart of poisonous plants and plant parts and related symptoms if ingested:
http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/publications/poison/poison.html

 

Antifreeze Poisoning:  
http://www.orphan.com/product_document.dbm?file=Condition_Overview_antizone.
http://www.orphan.com/product.dbm?id=2

Chocolate Poisoning:
Comprehensive look at types of chocolate and toxicity by weight:
http://users.snip.net/%7Ecarm74/choc.htm
Chart of toxicity by chocolate type and dog weight:
http://www.frii.com/~phouka/dogs/dog_choc.htm
 
Carbon Monoxide poisoning (human link, but relevant for pups too)
http://medicinegarden.com/Finished%20Articles/LIBRARYCMPoisoning.html
 
Organophosphate Poisoning (flea products specificially):
http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Environment/organo.htm
 
Insect Control Products for the Yard (Organophosphates (found in Diazinon and Malathion in pesticides, and Pyrethrin, Permethrin, Carbaryl and Piperonyl Butoxide in flea and tick sprays):
http://www.simbra.com/articles/insect.htm
 
Poisons and Antidotes (human);
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/steapois/poisonix.html

 

 

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Page last update: 12/13/2011

Fund-Raising Projects for
Anti Epileptic Drug Research
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